Posts Tagged With: Cleopatra

Rosetta and Philae: from Ancient Egypt to Asteroids!

 

 

  Image(courtesy of the EGSA)

This August, Ancient Egypt will experience a stellar comeback. Literally. In just a few weeks, the spacecraft “Rosetta”, launched in 2004, will reach its destination—the comet 67P/Churymov-Gerasimenko, and be delivered to its lander, “Philae” on the surface of the comet! On March 20-21st, scientists noted (through an OSIRIS wide-angle camera….Osiris—get it?) that Rosetta was right on track for its arrival.

In addition to the fact that a spacecraft being able to land on a comet is just about the coolest thing EVER, the connection to Ancient Egypt makes this particular mission even sweeter!

The spacecraft Rosetta is named after the famous Rosetta stone, an ancient artifact currently housed at the British Museum. According to the museum’s records, the Rosetta stone is from the Ptolemaic Period of Ancient Egypt (around 196 BC) and is an inscribed decree passed by a council of priests.  The true value of this artifact is found in the carved text where the council’s decree is inscribed three times: once in Hieroglyphs (the older language almost exclusively used by the religious at this point in history), once in Demotic (daily script of Egyptians in the period), and once in Greek (the language of the administration)

 

Image (courtesy of the British Museum)

When the stone was initially discovered by Napoleon’s army in 1799 in the town of el-Rashid (Rosetta), no one could decipher the hieroglyphic texts. However, an English physicist, Thomas Young, was the first to realize that some of the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta stone spelled out the royal name Ptolemy. Using this knowledge, the French scholar Jean-Francois Champollion, who was fluent in Coptic and Greek, was then able to uncover the connection between Greek, Coptic, and Demotic! His work was the catalyst to the formation of our understandings of all hieroglyphic texts.

And what about Philae? The Rosetta spacecraft’s lander is named after an obelisk found on the Nile island of Philae. This obelisk, much like the Rosetta stone, contains texts in both Greek and ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, and was utilized as a comparative “document” by Champollion and other scholars as they translated the ancient Egyptian language. In particular, scholars were able to identify the hieroglyphic spelling of Cleopatra and her family name Ptolemy through these two objects, providing a breakthrough that changed the landscape of Egyptology by providing a kind of “skeleton key” to the long misunderstood language of the ancient culture.

 

 Image(courtesy of kalligraphie.de)

In regards to our space mission, scientists are hoping that the spacecraft Rosetta and the lander Philae will function in the same way as their ancient counterparts, allowing scientists to discover previously unknown facts about the earliest years of the Solar System, when the planets were not yet formed and only comets and asteroids surrounded the sun.

As of June 20th, the spacecraft Rosetta was just under 160,000 km away from the comet and from meeting the lander Philae. Although scientists are unsure of how successful the mission will be, we will hope for history to repeat itself, and for Rosetta and Philae to hold their title as a team that opens the door to the ancient world…and beyond! 

 

 

 

Sources:

http://www.universetoday.com/110761/rosetta-spacecraft-spies-its-comet-as-it-prepares-for-an-august-encounter/

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/t/the_rosetta_stone.aspx

http://books.google.com/books?id=LVxT6gMEQzIC&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=obelisk+of+philae+rosetta+stone&source=bl&ots=NGp2FsRdlo&sig=kzQcgnqZZtiQhTSwJQUHv7qcWL0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=TnakU8O5MYfEsATgz4GoCg&ved=0CCcQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=obelisk%20of%20philae%20rosetta%20stone&f=false

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So You Wanna Play with (Ancient Egyptian) Magic? An Analysis of Katy Perry’s “Dark Horse”

In all honesty, when Katy Perry first released the music video for her latest hit, “Dark Horse,” I was mortified; Yes, Ancient Egypt was the theme of the video, but the presence of Katy’s intense diamond grill, spinning chariot rims, and a pyramid of Twinkies was completely overwhelming.

After I got over my initial revulsion and watched the video a few more times, however, I was relieved to recognize a few little glimmers of true Egyptology. So, here is my Top 5 Best Egyptology Moments in Katy Perry’s (Featuring Juicy J) “Dark Horse.” (This Top 5 list is provided, in part, through the analysis of the director of the University of Arizona Egyptian Expedition, Pearce Paul Creasman, who was interviewed by MTV.)

  1.  Katy Perry’s decision to create a pink Egyptian palace wasn’t made simply to celebrate her favorite color. The Egyptian pharaohs used pink granite in ancient architecture. The stone came from the southern region called Aswan, located just above the first cataract in the Nile between Nubia and Egypt. Although the natural pink granite quarried in Aswan was not as…potent in color as the stone appearing in the video, Katy gets an ‘A’ for effort.
  2.  No, those aren’t random and/or fake hierImageoglyphs floating around Katy Perry’s head. Aside from the actual hieroglyphs (like the Re eye at the bottom left) Perry includes the royal name of King Tut within this scene. At the left-most side of the view below, a cartouche is seen with hieroglyphs inside, indicating that  within the cartouche is a royal name. The name written is Nebkheperure, the throne name of Tuthankamun.          (Courtesy Vevo: Katy Perry)
  3. During the video, KP hangs with a few of the many gods worshipped by the Ancient Egyptians, including Bastet, Sobek,Horus, Seth, Aten, Anubis, and Thoth. There’s even a discreet shout out in the song itself when she sings, “Make me your Aphrodite.” Although Aphrodite is a goddess of Ancient Greece, the Egyptian goddess Isis was referred to by the Ancient Greeks as Aphrodite.
  4. If you know me at all, you know Cleopatra is one of my favorite Ancient Egyptian females. Whether you believe she was a woman who slept her way to the top or a brilliant leader and cunning politician (in case you’re wondering…the second is correct J), there is no question of her impact on Egyptian history. Katy Perry gives a graceful nod to this Egyptian Queen through her stylized makeup, her encounter with Egyptian asps—referencing Cleopatra’s tragic end (a moment of silence for Cleo please), and the lyrics mentioning Aphrodite. Cleopatra often portrayed herself as the Goddess Isis, particularly during her relationship with Caesar, as a way of aligning herself with one of the greatest goddesses in the Egyptian World.
  5. Okay…it’s time to address the Twinkies. Although I think this is absolutely ridiculous…Twinkies do last forever…and pyramids are a symbol of eternal life. I’ll give that one to you Katy. I don’t like it, but I respect it.

Image

(Courtesy Vevo: Katy Perry)

*As a bonus, the rapper featured in “Dark Horse”, Juicy J, is from Memphis, Tennessee, which is named after one of the capital cities of Ancient Egypt,  placing him as the cherry on top of this Egyptian sundae.

Although there was no Egyptologist on set for the creation of the video, it is clear that Katy Perry and her team had some idea of the history and religion of Ancient Egypt. However, I have no explanation for Katy’s diamond grill…sorry friends.

Curious to see what other Egyptian imagery is in the video? Watch it now! (Link in Works Cited)

 

Works Cited:

http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1722735/katy-perry-dark-horse-egyptian-references.jhtml

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0KSOMA3QBU0

 

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Spring Semester (Scribal) Slump

As we begin our first full week of the Spring Semester, I can’t help but revel in my usual Winter “Back to School Slump.” The holiday season has ended, it is freezing cold, and spring seems nowhere in sight. I wonder…is this how it has always been? Did King Tut dread going back to school after a festival? Did Hatshepsut ever choose an Ancient Egyptian equivalent of a Netflix Movie Marathon in bed instead of attending class?

Little is truly known about the Ancient Egyptian education system. But the main difference we can identify when comparing their system to our own is that being an educated Ancient Egyptian was extremely rare. Only a small minority of the elite children, sons of scribes and noblemen, received a formal education that included reading, writing, and arithmetic. As a prince, one was given the highest form of education, including the “arts of war”—horse riding, the use of weapons, and guiding a chariot.

Young men in Ancient Egyptian society did not typically choose their own career paths, but instead followed the family trade or profession. Unless they were a child of the King himself, most children were personally tutored by their parents, through apprenticeships.

(courtesy of library.thinkquest.org)

Scribal schools were an exception. Young men wishing to follow in their father’s footsteps and become scribes entered a very intensive program of training in a formal school setting. As we know, the Egyptian writing system is extremely intricate and unique. Many student scribes were occasionally inattentive or just plain unmotivated, and expressed a desire to quit school altogether (sound familiar?). As one may expect, teachers were frustrated with their students, claiming:

“They tell me that thou forsakes writing, and departest and dost flee; that thou forsakes writing and usest thy legs like horses of the riding-school. Thy heart is fluttered; thou art like an axj-bird. Thy ear is deaf; thou art like an antelope in fleeing.“ (Warnings to the Idle Scribe)

Sometimes, frustration with students got a little out of hand:

“But though I beat you with every kind of stick, you do not listen. If I knew another way of doing it, I would do it for you that you might listen.” (Instruction in Letter Writing)

When they weren’t suffering the occasional beating, students in scribal training learned the ins and outs of Egyptian hieroglyphics, practicing their writing on pottery shards or stone fragments. Scribal students would copy memorized texts over and over again until their grammar and execution were perfected. Only then could they graduate and take over their father’s position.

But what about the ladies? Unfortunately, the Ancient Egyptian education system had rules similar to a boy’s tree house: NO. GIRLS. ALLOWED. There is no concrete evidence that women were taught to read and write, or were involved in the education system at all. Women from semi-elite families were, at the most, given the opportunity to become temple musicians, or dancers. However, it is possible that royal status gave women more educational opportunities. They may have sat alongside their siblings and been exposed to literature, mathematics, writing, and grammar. The historical record does hold a very few examples of women who had obviously been educated. For instance, from the Third Intermediate Period on, the highest office within the cult of Amun-Re was held by a woman. She received the title of “God’s Wife”. (British Museum) We also know that Cleopatra was one of the most educated rulers of her time, knowing multiple languages including Ancient Egyptian (uncommon for Pharaohs of her time), math, poetry, and much more. Some women were responsible for running estates or manors, conducting certain levels of business such as owning or renting land, and could also take part in legal cases such as marriage and divorces. However, in general, women were relegated to domestic responsibilities such as weaving, baking, gardening, or farming.

So, as we endure the spirit-numbing winter weather that continues plaguing us this spring semester, let’s remember three things. One: Everyone (girl power!) should be grateful to have the opportunity of receiving an education. Two: Be thankful you have the option to study WHATEVER you want. And Three: Be thankful beating sticks are not allowed.

Sources:
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/w/women_in_ancient_egypt.aspx
http://www.historyembalmed.org/ancient-egyptians/ancient-egyptian-education.htm
http://www.rom.on.ca/en/education/online-activities/ancient-egypt/life-in-ancient-egypt/education

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